This online data base is a very important extension of the information available in the book. Please, read CAREFULLY the hereby explanations.
Beware : contributions to this huge task are always welcome from anybody, even if errors remain the initial author's full responsibility.
Missing or inappropriate photos will be replaced by new photos, too.
Your contribution will be acknowledged in everybody's interest (it will be listed and quoted as such). PLEASE, CONTRIBUTE !
Important note on current names : In Killi-Data online (also in the book), current names are given for all names (taxa), whenever they are valid, invalid, synonyms or unavailable (nomen nudum). Therefore, for example, species synonyms are given with their current generic name. It is a clear system, with the minor drawback that it creates new combinations of genus and species names. The 2 other (equally good) listing systems have also their strengths and weaknesses: first, only use the original name for all names, as per the Catalogue of Fishes or per Fishbase (then the minor drawback is that the original name has to be known beforehand for any search of a name); second, only mention the current name for valid species and use each author's used names for synonyms under the proper valid name, as per old CLOFFA or Lazara's old KMI (then the minor drawback is confusion between various naming along historical records).
(note : for each taxon, headlines are only shown if corresponding data is available).
Reversed name: species and subspecies name, whatever its status, with present abbreviated generic name.
Major revision edition update: 1.0, dated January 1. 2001 (the first web page of the database is dated such, the date corresponds to only major changes with systematics or nomenclatural updates, minor additions are not dated). Copyright Huber, Killi-Data International, www.killi-data.org.
No change of edition is done in case of corrections or general update in headlines, pyramidal listings, or an added new bibliographic publication without any new major information in the given page, etc.
Current full name: current genus and species (and subspecies) names in full (italic block letters).
Photos (when available): male, female of various populations (sometimes with details of body), preferably from type locality (with *) is followed by the name of the individual photographer, who retains all his copyrights. If you have a better photo, please contribute !
" AS " means Aquarium Strain, without known locality of origin.
Current full name: recall of current genus and species (and subspecies) names in full (italic block letters).
Describer(s) and year of description (block letters between parenthesis if current name is different from original name).
Family: ending -idae. The allocation follows Ichthyological Institutions, worldwide.
Subfamily: ending -inae (if relevant). The allocation follows compromises between golden standard and most recent scientific evidence in publications.
Tribe: ending -ini (if relevant). The allocation follows compromises between golden standard and most recent scientific evidence in publications.
Subtribe: ending -ina (if relevant). The allocation follows compromises between golden standard and most recent scientific evidence in publications.
Genus: genus name in full, according to the most recent published consensus evidence.
Abbreviated genus: abbreviated genus name, with the currently used abbreviation.
Abbreviated subgenus: abbreviated subgenus name between parenthesis, with the currently used abbreviation.
Abbreviated superspecies: abbreviated superspecies code name, between brackets ([" . "], with subgenus code, dot and code of the most senior component name of the superspecies.
Species: specific name in full or subspecific name, in case of a subspecies.
Index name: species name followed by ":" and full current name.
Full name: current genus, subgenus and species (and subspecies) names in full.
Abbreviated extended name: abbreviated genus, subgenus, superspecies names followed by species name in full.
Abbreviated short name: abbreviated genus name and species name in full.
Original name: name of description with original genus and species names.
Describer(s): names of describer(s), sometimes followed by "in" if the author(s) of publication are different from describer(s).
Year of description (no parenthesis, ever, because the original name is given here).
Type locality: translated into English from original labelling; "subseq." means subsequent designation, as per bibliography (geographical coordinates in list of localities with *):
Types series: list of types (Holotype and Paratypes, Lectotype and Paralectotypes, Syntypes, Neotype and Paraneotypes) with size (if known), museum numbers and place of storage (abbreviations of Museums are clarified and their addresses are given in Institutions).
Discoverer(s): name of discoverer(s) as seen in the description (hazardous discoverer may also be mentioned). Vernacular name, if known.
Etymology: meaning of the name, with roots from Latin, Greek and/or vernacular languages.
Gender ("Masc." for masculine, "Fem." for feminine, "Neut." for neutral) concerning taxa at the generic level, or, Accordance ("Adj." for adjective, "Subst." for substantive, "Name" for names dedicated to a person, "Vern." for vernacular names) concerning taxa at the specific level; only in the case of "Adj.", is the name modified according to genus gender.
Current status: valid, synonym (of a currently valid taxon at the generic or specific level), nominotypical subspecies ("nomin. subsp."), subspecies (of a currently valid taxon at the specific level), invalid (taxon rejected by the I.C.Z.N.); note: for taxa at the generic level, the type species is also given.
Alternative status: "#", followed by alternative status, recently in use.
Alternative name(s): "#", followed by alternative name(s), recently in use.
Misspelling(s): usual typos followed by "erratum" between parenthesis (note: for eilensis, this is just the reverse, since cilensis is a printing error in the description and should not have been the proper name… it has been changed since).
Current synonyms: "Syn_" followed by junior synonyms, with their original names and describers and, in some cases, their availability status (e.g., nomen nudum).
If the taxon is currently valid, mention "None."
If the taxon is a current synonym, mention "Not applicable".
Additional data are also given under each listed synonym.
Status evaluation: "confirmed" (if current status is accepted by several authors), "unconfirmed" (if current status is not yet accepted or reviewed by several authors, in case of a new systematic move), "discussed" (if several status are proposed along with the current status), "controversial" (if current status is opposed by one or several authors, with no fixed decision).
Systematic remarks on the taxon in the present sense (depending on the time of description): "well defined" (if well described at the time of description, even in the case of later disclosed synonyms or subsequently well redescribed), "insufficiently defined" (if not well described or with major data missing in the description), "ill-defined" (if very poorly described), "not defined" (if not defined).
Miscellaneous comments: systematic notes of interest (e.g., for discussed matters).
Current valid components of superspecies (for species items only): related species names with identical external profile, different color pattern and distinct genetic characteristics.
Diagnosis: distinguishing characters within the superspecies, mainly color patterns and other external characters ; autapormorphies are emphasized; for generic taxa, osteological characters are also given.
Phylogenetic positioning: primitive or derived within its lineage, based on current evidence.
Future research: major issues that need to be addressed (please contribute!).
Historical milestones of knowledge: list of major bibliographic references with the added knowledge for each.
Countries of distribution (local name): countries of proven collections, in alphabetical order (for large countries, states or provinces are also given).
Range: from only known from type area to huge, followed by the geographical region where the taxon is collected.
Biogeographically replaced (by): related (or not) taxa) that are vicariant ecological counterparts.
Sympatric species (or genera): oviparous Cyprinodont species which are sympatric (i.e., reported as living together) or viviparous Cyprinodonts (possibly after artificial introduction).
Availability in nature (conservation status): widespread (no real concern), locally endangered, globally endangered, protected, extinct.
Typical landscape: from marine to mountains.
Biotope coverage: from desertic to primary forest.
Niche: from sea shores to springs.
Subniche preference: from very active downhill waters to wet leaves.
Depth of water (usual): from few centimetres to over 5 meters.
Flow speed (usual): from no current to strong current.
Water chemistry: acidic freshwater, alkaline to neutral freshwater, brackish water, marine water, hyper-saline water.
Temperature of water (min-max): in centigrade (Celsius) degrees.
Table of correspondence: T°F= 32+9/5*T°C (reversally, T°C= 5/9*T°F-32)
Position in water: from in contact with water surface to pelagic (predators, when known).
Social behavior: from dynamic schools to passive tribes.
Intraspecific behavior: from peaceful or neutral to cannibalistic (versus other individuals or females).
Breeding behavior: from laying eggs among water plants to diving into mulm.
Food (dominant): from ants to plants and algae.
First aquarium record: country of first aquarium experience, first breeder and year of first breeding.
Aquarium set-up: optimized aquarium conditions (advised, not rigid) for breeding and maintenance (taking into account that ecological conditions are followed) of an adult pair (pacific tribes) or trio (antagonistic or aggressive tribes) or small group (shoaling and schooling species).
Important notice: live foods and frequent water changes are prerequisite for the success of any species. Variables: volume of aquarium (to be adapted according to species size, possibly half-filled), salt addition, bottom substratum, breeding substratum, filtering requirements, light, improvements by aquatic plants, compulsory refugees.
Difficulty of breeding and guidelines: for beginner, for advanced aquarist, for experienced breeder, for experts.
Life cycle: non annual, semi-annual, or, annual.
Egg diameter: mean in mm (just gives an indication, as it depends on populations, food… ).
Incubation lag in aquarium (at 18°C-24°C): in weeks (on average: lower temperatures increase the lag and reciprocally).
First free-swimming food in aquarium: small crustaceans, artemias (nauplies), daphnias, red worms, fish.
First swimming in aquarium: immediate or delayed and place where the fry is first observed in the aquarium.
Sexation in aquarium: in weeks, i.e. when sexes of fry can be visually separated (on average: depends on space, food, selection…).
Maturity in aquarium: in months, i.e. when fish begin to spawn (on average: depends on space, food, selection…).
Lifespan in aquarium: normal in artificial conditions (a maximum in real life), in months (on average: depends on space, food, selection… ).
Availability in aquariums: never reported, disappeared, rare, occasional, common.
Aquarium populations: names of current aquarium populations (usually the name of the nearest village to the collecting locality), in alphabetical order ; possibly collecting codes may be added such as MRGB97-14, i.e. code of the expedition (usually initials of collectors), year, collecting point.
Size of male (in aquarium): size of fully adult dominant specimens (rarely seen in nature), but not largest recorded specimen (cm, knowing that 1 inch equals to 2.54 cm, or 1 cm equals 0.394 inch).
Female body size (compared to male): smaller, equal, larger.
Dorsal rays (average): if dimorphic, male only; if genus, mean data.
Anal rays (average): if dimorphic, male only; if genus, mean data.
D/A deviation (average): if dimorphic, male only; if genus, mean data.
LL scale count (average): if genus, mean data.
Transversal scale count (average): if genus, mean data.
Predorsal length (% S.L.) (average): if dimorphic, male only; if genus, mean data.
Depth (% S.L.) (average): if dimorphic, male only; if genus, mean data.
Number of vertebrae (average): if genus, mean data.
Overall melanism on body: from none to conspicuous in both sexes.
Markings, on mouth: from none to conspicuous on both lips.
Markings, surrounding eyes: from none to conspicuous.
Markings on iris: from none to a marked shining.
Markings on back: from none to conspicuous.
Markings on belly: from none to conspicuous.
Preopercular colored markings: from none to specific.
Preopercular temporary dark markings: from none to specific.
Postopercular temporary dark markings: from none to specific.
Sides longitudinal temporary dark markings: from none to specific.
Sides vertical temporary dark markings: from none to specific.
Metallic shining on sides: from none to specific.
Structure of pattern on male sides: from generalized to derived.
Male dominant background color: from red to dark.
Male color on mating: similar or distinctive.
Female color on mating: similar or distinctive.
Overall body dichromatism: female, from strongly subdued to distinctive.
Supracaudal ocellus: from none to conspicuous.
Type of markings on male mid-anterior sides: from none to conspicuous.
Type of markings on male posterior sides: from none to conspicuous.
Posterior pattern compared to anterior, in male: similar or distinctive.
Upper sides and back color pattern: from none to specific.
Dark permanent thin line on sides of both sexes: from none to conspicuous.
Pectoral fins, in male: from translucent to marked, with or without margin.
Ventral fins, in male: from translucent to marked, with or without margin.
Paired fins in female, compared to male: similar or distinctive.
Dorsal fin border pattern, in male: from no specific marking to a distinctive one.
Dorsal fin inner pattern, in male: from no specific marking to a distinctive one.
Dorsal fin base pattern, in male: from no specific marking to a distinctive one.
Anal fin border pattern, in male: from no specific marking to a distinctive one.
Anal fin inner pattern, in male: from no specific marking to a distinctive one.
Anal fin base pattern, in male: from no specific marking to a distinctive one.
Dorsal fin pattern compared to Anal fin: symmetrical, asymmetrical, similar, distinctive.
Caudal fin upper border pattern, in male: from no specific marking to a distinctive one.
Caudal fin lower border pattern, in male: from no specific marking to a distinctive one.
Caudal fin inner pattern, in male: from no specific marking to a distinctive one.
Caudal fin posterior pattern, in male: from no specific marking to a distinctive one.
Caudal fin upper region compared to lower, in male: symmetrical, asymmetrical, similar, distinctive.
Caudal fin pattern, compared to Dorsal and Anal, in male: similar or distinctive.
Female unpaired fins: from no specific marking to a distinctive one.
Female unpaired fins pattern, compared to male: similar or distinctive.
Other pattern characters:
Preserved pattern specificities:
Body dimorphism (sexual): from none to strongly dimorphic.
Allometry in body growth: from none to strongly dichromatic.
Vertical profile of body: from very deep-bodied to slender.
Transversal profile of body: from convex to completely flattened.
Greatest body depth in male: from the level of opercle to behind the Dorsal fin.
Vertical profile of head: from triangular to strongly depressed.
Upper and lower jaws profile: from rounded to prognathe.
Orientation of mouth opening: from longitudinal to upwardly directed.
Level of mouth opening, vs. opercular depth: from very high to very low.
Eye vertical position, relative to head depth at opercle: from high to very low.
Interorbitar vs. depth at eye level: from very narrow to much enlarged.
Eye vertical position, relative to mouth opening: upper or lower.
Eye diameter: from diminutive to enlarged (and anterior or posterior longitudinal position, vs. standard).
Opercular depth, relative to head depth: higher or not.
Opercular upper profile in dominant male: continuous or disrupted.
Opercular lower profile in dominant male: extended or not.
Transversal upper outline of head: from curved to disrupted.
Upper vertical outline of head and nearby: from curved to depressed.
Lower vertical outline of head, around opercle: from curved to disrupted.
Upper outline of body: from curved to disrupted.
Lower outline of body: from curved to disrupted.
Back vs. belly outline, in male: symmetrical or distinctive.
Prepeduncular outline of body: continuous or disrupted.
Peduncular depth, relative to head depth: higher or lower.
Peduncular and Caudal fin outline: continuous or disrupted.
Overall body dichmorphism (sexual): from none to conspicuous.
Pectoral fins insertion: from low to high.
Pectoral fins shape, in male: from rounded to elongate.
Pectoral fins posterior profile, in male: from curved to extended.
Ventral fins insertion: closer to Pectorals or to Anal fin.
Ventral fins shape, in dominant male: from short to elongate.
Ventral fins posterior profile, in male: from curved to extended.
Pectoral fins dimorphism (sexual): from none to strong.
Ventral fins dimorphism (sexual): from none to strong.
Dorsal fin anterior border: from continuous to disrupted.
Dorsal fin superior border, in male: curved or straight.
Dorsal fin, position of apex in male: from anterior to posterior.
Dorsal fin, shape of apex in male: from rounded to filamentous.
Dorsal fin, corner in male: from rounded to filamentous.
Dorsal fin, posterior border in male: from convex to filamentous.
Dorsal fin, insertion in male: frontwards or backwards.
Dorsal fin, deviation to Anal (D/A) in male: from strongly negative to strongly positive.
Dorsal fin shape, compared to Anal fin in male: similar or distinctive.
Dorsal fin shape, in male compared to female: similar or distinctive.
Dorsal and Anal fin meristics and deviation, in male compared to female: dimorphic or not.
Dorsal fin shape, compared to Anal fin in female: similar or distinctive.
Anal fin shape, in male compared to female: similar or distinctive.
Anal fin anterior border: from continuous to disrupted.
Anal fin inferior border, in male: curved or straight.
Anal fin, position of apex in male: from anterior to posterior.
Anal fin, shape of apex in male: from rounded to filamentous.
Anal fin, corner in male: from rounded to filamentous.
Anal fin, posterior border in male: from rounded to filamentous.
Anal fin, insertion in male: frontwards or backwards.
Caudal fin length: from short to extended.
Caudal fin upper and lower borders: from rounded to lyre-shaped.
Caudal fin mid-posterior shape: from rounded to trilobate.
Caudal fin corners: from rounded to filamentous.
Caudal fin dimorphism (sexual): from none to extreme.
More morpho-data: additional characteristics.
Frontal scalation type: from S to H type.
Scales on body: regularly organized or not.
Scales on lower pre-opercular region: upwardly or downwardly oriented.
Neuromasts, supra-orbital anterior series: beneath pores or in grooves.
Neuromasts, supra-orbital lateral series: beneath pores or in grooves.
Neuromasts, supra-orbital lateral number: from few to a hundred.
Neuromasts, supra-orbital posterior series: beneath pores or in grooves, fused or not with lateral series.
Neuromasts, pre-opercular series: beneath pores or in grooves.
Neuromasts, post-orbital (dermosphenotic) series: beneath pores or in grooves.
Neuromasts, pre-orbital series: beneath pores or in grooves.
Naris: vestigial or conspicuous.
Teeth (external rows): from none to tricuspid.
Additional morphological data: from ctenoidy to additional contact organs.
Key osteological characters (generic): vomerine teeth, hypural plate, fin radials, etc.
More on osteology: specific additional characters.
Number of haploid chromosomes: if variable, lowest known (n).
Number of chromosome arms: accordingly (A).
Genetic specificities: sexual chromosomes, polymorphism, etc.
Localities: listed according to alphabetical order of country, then to alphabetical order of locality labelling (* for type locality); geographical coordinates are given in thousandths of degree (that level of precision is only useful in case the coordinates were given by a GPS device; otherwise, it helps avoiding confusion with coordinates labelled in minutes and seconds), followed by collector/donor to the Institution.
The geographical co-ordinates are given according to modern cartography:
- in degrees and thousandths of degrees (and not in minutes or in grades), i.e., 3.500= 3°30'= 3.89 Gr.
At the level of the equator, 1 degree of latitude or longitude equals about 110 kilometers (one thousandth of a degree equals 110 meter, a precision that is only achievable with modern GPS devices).
When not at the level of equator, 1 degree of latitude still equals about 110 kilometers, but not of longitude (the distance then decreases all the more that the distance from equator is greater, up to zero at poles).
However, contrary to modern cartography, directions are maintained and not replaced by positive or negative signs used by geographers: N for north (+), S for south (-), E for east (+), W for west (-).
Compared to the frequently used degrees and minutes, this makes it easier to find places on a map, and, if the readings are alphanumerical, easier to analyse on a computer.
Data are taken from the Gazetteer, from publications, from various files of Museums throughout the world, or have been kindly given by dedicated
contributors who are quoted in the roll of honor of CONTRIBUTORS
If the sign "<'' is shown, geographical coordinates are missing and eagerly sought for.
Be careful that general maps of developing countries are sometimes approximate.
How to compute back to minutes and seconds? Extract the three numbers after dot, multiply by ".06" to get minutes, then extract the three new numbers after dot, multiply by ".06" to get seconds.
For example: 3.514 N equals 3°30'50"", as 514*.06= 30.840, then 840*.06=50.4
Coll./Donor: indicates the name of the collector(s) (or, failing that, the name of the donor to the Scientific Institution); besides, the name corresponding to the description is often that of the discoverer but not always (see the oldest collecting date).
Maps (first published with the book Killi-Data 1996): they visualize the position of the collecting localities, in connection to their geographical coordinates in the list and allow to determine the poorly prospected zones in order to stimulate interesting expeditions. For
each country, the numbering increases in a logical way of growing longitude.
Two types of maps may be available:
Bibliographic index with full references (the title of each reference gives the used language) with information on contents.
This list shows a very large selection of significant articles that have produced at least one important and new data item: description, redescription, review, synonymization, field, laboratory or aquarium experiences, color photos. The codes are only mentioned for important and new findings within each scientific paper. Mentions, compilations, bibliographic syntheses, and so on, are not indexed in detail for reasons of space. In the contrary, the selection of aquarist's articles is wider to allow the diversity in experiences and used languages.
For a productive bibliographic research, it is advised not to limit oneself to the selected taxon, but to enlarge it to related taxa and to their synonyms (cf. components of the superspecies).
Finally the publication date may vary of one year whether the printed date or the distribution date is considered: for example, a publication dated as December may have been distributed some months later of the following year.
The contents of the selected publications are described by key codes.
@ = original description or redescription, as …
Age = life span expectancy/age growth ratio
Aquar = aquarium experience (maintenance, breeding…)
as = identified as (cf, aff, sp. … )
Coll = collecting accounts/catalogs
Dis= distribution (Country, Zone)
Eco = ecology & other observations in the field (sympatry, measurements …)
Emb = embryology
Exp = other Laboratory experiments/Physiology
Food = food
Gen = genetics (karyotype, electrophoresis, molecular biology…)
Hyb = hybridisation
in = attributed, for the first time, to…
Mis= misidentified as …
Mor = morphology/ meristics/external characters (teeth, scales, neuromasts… )
Ost = osteology/ internal characters
Pat = color pattern
Rev = review of a group (genus, subgenus, superspecies), of a zone
Syn_= new junior synonym (it s followed by the junior synonym of a valid taxon)
"=" = denotes a junior synonym and is followed by the name of its senior synonym.
Sys= systematics & nomenclature
Examples (in part in Huber, 1992):
* Rivulus: Rev/… review of the genus Rivulus
* Anablepsoides: @subgen Rivulus/… description of a new subgenus of Rivulus: Anablepsoides
* atratus: @Rivulus/in Anablepsoides/Coll/Beh/Aquar/… redescription of the taxon atratus in the genus Rivulus/ taxon attributed for the first time to the subgenus Anablepsoides (type species)/precized type locality; other collecting localities/behavior/ aquarium experience
* christinae: @Rivulus/Eco/… description of a new species, christinae, in the genus Rivulus/ ecology, biotope
* myersi Riv.: Sys/= tenuis/Mor/Eco/Ost/… Rivulus myersi: systematics/ new junior synonym of tenuis/morphomeristics (of the type)/ecology; sympatric species/ osteology; radiophotography; vertebrae counts
* tenuis Riv.: Sys/Syn_myersi/Dis/subgen. Cynodonichthys/... Rivulus tenuis: systematics/ new senior synonym of myersi/distribution/attributed to the redefined subgenus Cynodonichthys.
erratum: error (mispelling).
valid.: valid (today considered as).
invalid.: invalidated, rejected by the I.C.Z.N.
nomin. subsp.: nominotypical subspecies.
subsp.: subspecies (of).
typus: type species for a genus or subgenus.
nom. oblitum (nomen oblitum): forgotten name.
nom. nudum (nomen nudum): invalid name.
nom. preoc. (nomen preoccupandum): preoccupied name.
nom. dubium (nomen dubium): doubtful name.
nom. vanum (nomen vanum): useless name.
in: when the describer(s) is (are) different from the author(s) of the considered publication.
parenthesis: when the describer's name and the description date are printed between parenthesis, it means that the genus name of today is different from that of the original description.
currently selected status: the systematic status herein considered for each taxon depends only on published evidence. Opinions of validity or synonymy declared by any author without scientific argumentation are not taken into account. The index clarifies the status of each taxon and the bibliographic sources that were acknowledged.
#: different status: one or more publications use a different name
The sign # in a list indicates that an alternative status or an alternative name have been also proposed and may be acceptable. No status is fixed for ever.
different genus name: Archiaphyosemion liberiense # Aphyosemion liberiense.
different level, species or subspecies: Rivulus rubripunctatus # subsp. isthmensis.
different validity: Epiplatys lokoensis = barmoiensis # valid