From Jean H. Huber
Private address: 7 Bd Flandrin, 75116 Paris, France
Laboratoire d'Ichtyologie, M.N.H.N., 43 rue Cuvier, 75231 PARIS Cedex 05.
e-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org (NEW, but today inactive)
S.F.I. : Societe Francaise d'Ichtyologie (same address).
Paris, March 9., 2001.
Dear Colleague, dear Aquarist!
As promised in Newsletter 2, with the aim to extend my warmest thanks to aquarists for their purchases of my Rivulus book, please find herewith, as a Word 2000 attached document (caution: over 350 kb), a table comparing the valid names in the two reference books for aquarists (and not only them), namely Wildekamp's World of Killies and Seegers's Killi Aqualog, with those of Killi-Data online (herein placed in OUTLOOK, beware it is a heavy file)).
First let us emphasize that this table has been simply worked out so that any reader can profitably use his major books whatever happened to each concerned names, or even can take the opportunity of correcting his books so that the information stays perfectly up to date.
By no means is that comparison undertaken to show that Killi-Data is right, and wrong one or the two others: names change regularly. They actually changed dramatically for Killi-Data 2000: books published before 1999 cannot possibly use updated names, such as the three currently available volumes of Wildekamp's World of Killies (1993, 1995, 1996) and the first two volumes of Seegers's Killi Aqualog (1997). By nature, Killi-Data online is updated and this table will be updated and freely available on the website.
Second, after having worked through this table (6 hours!), there are very few differences that I cannot explain. These unexpected differences all come from Seegers's books, just because valid names (and hence missing names as synonyms) are quoted without explanation:
- Aphyosemion etzeli (today Scriptaphyosemion), Epiplatys etzeli, Epiplatys (fasciolatus) josianae, Nothobranchius ugandensis, Rivulus xanthonotus are missing and we do not know why.
- On the other hand, Megalebias robustus and Rivulus bondi are quoted as valid, whereas, to our knowledge, they are synonyms since long, and schreitmuelleri is quoted as valid but in Austrolebias (clarification will be kindly asked to Lothar Seegers in due time).
Third, as already mentioned in previous newsletters, names used in these two reference books can perfectly be used (and some may be used again in the future). Just keep in mind that Killi-Data online gives the most updated name, i.e. corresponding to the results of the latest scientific evidence-based publication (not simply of opinions, of course) and it is always possible to show the alternative name between parenthesis in case of important differences, e.g.:
- Austrolebias nigripinnis (Cynolebias) as the modern naming with the old naming between parenthesis, or, Cynolebias nigripinnis (Austrolebias) if you stick to the old naming and you disagree with Costa's latest move.
- Micropanchax loati (Aplocheilichthys) as the modern naming with the old naming between parenthesis, or, Aplocheilichthys loati (Micropanchax) if you stick to the old naming and you disagree with Ghedotti's latest move.
Reactions to my last newsletter were numerous. Thank you to the dedicated Internauts!
First a request by enthusiastic aquarists for molecular biology: a list of all publications using this new promising but not ultimate technique. Still few important papers, listed in appendix 1.
Beware, though, that molecularists themselves conclude by emphasizing that they only studied fragments of a few genes, mostly from the mitochondry, and not yet (or very rarely) from the nucleus. In addition, homologies do occur, just like with external morphology or with osteology, and, limits arise from the PAUP software used equally in the three techniques. If you want to know more on the strengths, weaknesses and of course attractive contributions of molecular biology, reading discussions about results with African Rift Cichlids is advised (for bibliography, search the Zoological Record).
Second, a more personal question, asking why I was so much concerned by funding new researchers targeting on oviparous Cyprinodonts. Well, basically for three reasons : I am idealistically tight to that idea. I feel sorry that other groups of fishes, even outside the fisheries scope, are much more studied by professional or amateur ichthyologists. And more importantly, I know well that all current researchers are becoming old (no living primary describer of at least 3 taxa is less than 50 years old or so, and most are along the sixties and seventies).
Therefore, my strong motto is :
- raise interest for Cyprinodonts research among young scientists;
- develop cooperation between aquarists and scientists to establish confidence and mutual respect;
- offer money to stimulate action, a very old and efficient spur !
Please circulate widely that 21000 FF of grant is available at the Paris MNHN for Killifish research and submit projects directly to Prof. François MEUNIER, at Paris MNHN <email@example.com> or to me.
Finally, I would like to announce not less than 8 new Simpsonichthys species, described by Costa and co-workers in a Brazilian aquarists magazine (see appendix 2). I guess Wilson Costa published on purpose 4 of them in December 2000 and 4 in January 2001, as a farewell to the past millennium and as a welcome to the new one!
Also, as an ultimate event before sending this Newsletter, the description of a strange, maybe primitive Aphanius (or Lebias, if you prefer) species that is sympatric with dispar in a salt water Ethiopian lake (Getahun & Lazara, 2001). And still unknown live in aquarium.
Many thanks to Roger Brousseau, Dalton Nielsen and Stefano Valdesalici, for their help in those issues (please do not ask for photocopies: understand that time is limited).
Please, note also that:
- I had to change provider for mail in order to be able to use my mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (today inactive)
- the website of Killi-Data is presently in Intranet evaluation because there are many new information available : the official announcement will come with the next Newsletter;
- precisely, for the website, I plan to include color photos of male and female of each species, preferably from the type locality (it is a scientific venture) : your top quality 35 mm slides are welcome (not your best slide, the one you keep private or for publication, but a very good one). Do not worry about pirates, slides will be shown with a very low density to dissuade them (and note that the Internet is not worse than printed matters: scanning photos in books is so easy that I was presented a file of thousands of photos including all those published by Seegers in Aqualog and by T.F.H. for Scheel's!). Then, if you have slides, drop me a line and you'll see your interests in contributing to Killi-Data online.
Do not hesitate to ask questions for future Newsletters.
Thank you for your support over the years.
With my kindest regards.
Appendix 1: publications on molecular biology for oviparous Cyprinodonts.
Bernardi, G. 1997. Molecular Phylogeny of the Fundulidae (Teleostei, Cyprinodontiformes) based on the Cytochrome b Gene. In: Kocher T.D. & C.A. Stiepen. Molecular Systematics of Fishes. Academic Press Ltd, Harcourt Brace & Co., 314pp.
Bernardi, G. & D.A. Powers. 1995. Phylogenetic Relationships among Nine Species from the Genus Fundulus (Cyprinodontiformes, Fundulidae) inferred from Sequences of the Cytochrome B Gene. Copeia, (2): 469-473, 1 fig., appx.
Echelle, A.A., R.A. Van den Bussche, T.P. Malloy Jr, M.L. Hatnie & C.O. Minkley. 2000. Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Pupfishes assigned to the Species Cyprinodon macularius (Atherinomorpha, Cyprinodontidae): taxonomic Implications and Conservation Genetics. Copeia, (2): 353-364, 2 figs., 2 tabs.
Ghedotti, M.J. & M.J. Grose. 1997. Phylogenetic Relationships of the Fundulus nottii Species Group (Fundulidae, Cyprinodontiformes) as inferred from the Cytochrome b Gene. Copeia, (4) December: 858-862, fig.
Grant, E.C. & B.R. Riddle. 1995. Are the endangered Springfish (Crenichthys Hubbs) and Poolfish (Empetrichthys Gilbert) Fundulins or Goodeids?: a Mitochondrial DNA Assessment. Copeia, (1), Feb.: 209-212, 2 figs.
Hrbek, T. & A. Larson. 1999. The Evolution of Diapause in the Killifish Family Rivulidae (Atherinomorpha, Cyprinodontiformes): a molecular phylogenetic and biogeographic Perspective. Evolution, Lawrence, Kansas, 53: 1200-1216., 7 figs., 3 tabs.
Meyer, A. & C. Lydeard. 1993. The Evolution of Copulatory Organs, internal Fertilization, Placentae and Viviparity in Killifishes (Cyprinodontiformes) inferred from a DNA Phylogeny of the Tyrosine Kinase Gene X-src. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., B, 254: 153-162, 4 figs.
Murphy, W.J. & G.E. Collier. 1996. Phylogenetic Relationships within the Aplocheiloid Fish Genus Rivulus (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae): Implications for Caribbean and Central American Biogeography. Mol. Biol. Evol., 13 (5): 642-649, 3 figs.
Murphy, W.J. & G.E. Collier. 1997. A Molecular Phylogeny for Aplocheiloid Fishes (Atherinomorpha, Cyprinodontiformes): The role of Vicariance and the Origins of Annualism. Mol. Biol. Evol., 14 (8): 790-799, 6 figs., 2 Tabs.
Murphy, W.J. & G.E. Collier. 1999. Phylogenetic Relationships of African Killifishes in the Genera Aphyosemion and Fundulopanchax inferred from mitochondrial DNA Sequences. Mol. Phylogenetics and Evol., 11 (3) (April): 351-360, 5 figs.
Murphy, W.J., T.N.P. Nguyen, E.B. Taylor & G.E. Collier. 1999. Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeny of West African Aplocheiloid Killifishes (Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheilidae). Mol. Phylogenetics and Evol., 11 (3) (April): 343-350, 3 figs.
Murphy, W.J., J.E. Thomerson & G.E. Collier. 1999. Phylogeny of the Neotropical Killifish Family Rivulidae (Cyprinodontiformes, Aplocheiloidei) Inferred from Mitochondrial DNA Sequences. Mol. Phylogenetics and Evol. , 13 (2) (November): 289-301, 5 figs.
Parker, A. 1997. Combining Molecular and Morphological Data in Fish Systematics: Examples from the Cyprinodontiformes. In: Kocher, T.D. & C.A. Stiepen. Molecular Systematics of Fishes. Academic Press Ltd, Harcourt Brace & Co., 314pp.
Parker, A. & I.L. Kornfield. 1995. Molecular Perspective on Evolution and Zoogeography of Cyprinodontid Killifishes (Teleostei; Atherinomorpha). Copeia, (1): 8-21, figs.
Strecker, U., C.G. Meyer, C. Sturmbauer & H. Wilkens. 1996. Genetic Divergence in an extremely young Species Flock in Mexico, formed by the Genus Cyprinodon (Cyprinodontiformes, Teleostei). Mol. Phylogenetics and Evol., 6 (1): 143-149.
Appendix 2: new species since Infoweb 2 (herein placed in NEW).
I am interested in reading other Newsletters, click INFOWEB.